This list of French cooking terms, courtesy of Kitchen Geekery, is absolutely essential reading for any self-respecting Francophile!
My favourite, and the one I've found most useful when navigating French menus, is:
Blanquette - A stew made from meat that has not been browned or fried. Usually refers to stews made of lamb, chicken or veal.
I have eaten many dishes like this in Paris restaurants or bistrots serving authentic, peasant-style food and they were a delicious way of slow cooking a less expensive cut of meat with really fantastic results.